The State of Odisha occupies an important place in the country having a high concentration of Scheduled Tribe and Scheduled Caste population. As per the latest 2011 census, it is ranked third (numerically) in terms of ST population whereas its position is eleventh (numerically) in terms of SC population in the country. Scheduled Tribes and Scheduled Castes together constitute nearly 40% of the State’s Total Population (S.Ts 22.85% and S.Cs 17.13%). The population of Scheduled Tribes and Scheduled Castes is as follows :
SCHEDULED AREAS IN ODISHA
In exercise of powers conferred by sub-paragraph 6 of the Fifth Schedule to the Constitution of India, the revised Presidential Order titled " The Scheduled Areas (states of Bihar, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh & Odisha) Order 1977" has declared the full districts viz. Mayurbhanj, Sundargarh, Koraput (which now includes the districts of Koraput, Malkangiri, Nabarangapur and Rayagada) , Kuchinda tahasil of Sambalpur district, Keonjhar, Telkoi, Champua, Barbil tahasils of Keonjhar district, Khondamal, Balliguda and G.Udayagiri tahasil of Khondamal district, R.Udaygiri tahasil, Gumma and Rayagada block of Parlekhemundi tahasil in Parlakhemundi Sub-division and Suruda tahasil (excluding Gazalbadi and Gochha Gram Panchayats), of Ghumsur sub-division in Ganjam district, Thuamul Rampur and Lanjigarh blocks of Kalahandi district and Nilagiri block of Balasore district as Scheduled Areas of the state. After reorganisation of districts in the state, 7 districts fully and 6 districts partly are covered under the Scheduled Areas of the state.
ORIGIN OF THE DEPARTMENT
To look after the welfare of Backward Classes, a small unit named Backward Classes Welfare Section was formed in the erstwhile Planning and Reconstruction Department in the year 1946-47. In order to provide concerted efforts to the problem of Scheduled Tribe, Schedule Caste and OBC, the Backward Classes Welfare Department was formed in 1948. In the year 1949, the subject ‘Village Welfare’ was entrusted to the Department and was renamed as "Rural Welfare Department".
Soon after the adoption of the Constitution of India in 1950, the name of the Department was changed and renamed as Tribal and Rural Welfare Department. This name continued for quite a long period after which the Department was renamed as Scheduled Castes & Tribal Welfare Department. Subsequently, the Department was bifurcated into Scheduled Castes Welfare & Tribal Welfare which again was merged to be named as Welfare Department. Welfare Department was rechristened as Scheduled Tribe and Scheduled Caste Development Department since 22nd February 1999 and continues as such.
MANDATE OF THE DEPARTMENT
The Constitution has imposed responsibilities on the Governments for the all round Development of the Scheduled Tribes and Scheduled Castes. The policies, Programmes and schemes of the Department have been designed in consonance with the overall goals and objectives as enshrined in Articles 46 (Part IV), 16, 17, 19, 164, 244, 275, 330, 332,335,338,339,341, 342 and 366 of the Constitution of India and aim at improving the quality of life of S.T. & S.C. communities.
Core facilities, Monetary Entitlements, Allowances and Compensations to STs, SCs, OBCs & Minority communities.
Compensation to Atrocity Victims
- Boarding facilities for students belonging to ST, SC, OBCs in State run Hostels
- Scholarships to STs, SCs, OBCs & Minorities from Primary level right up to Ph.D Level.
- Educational Amenities to ST & SC students like NT Books, Reading & Writing Materials, School Uniforms
- Cash compensation to ‘next of kin’ during unfortunate incidents of death of Boarder students
- Monetary relief to SC & ST victims of atrocities
- Legal Aid to SCs & STs for establishing their right, title, interest and possession over the disputed land and also for cases under PCR Act,1955 & POA Act,1989
- Insurance scheme for Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups (PVTGs) through Janshree Bima Yojana of LIC.
- Cash award to couples performing Inter-caste marriage.
- Margin Money Loan under Bankable Schemes to SCs & ST through the Odisha SC/ST Finance Dev. Corpn
- Minimum Support Price (MSP) to STs as primary gatherers for Minor Forest Produce (MFP).
- Reservation in Posts & Services as per provisions of the ORV Act,1975
- Pre-Examination/Pre-Recruitment Training for appearing at various competitive Exams through Implementing Agencies
- Monetary Relief is being given to the SC & ST victims of atrocities as per the norms and scale prescribed in the scheduled annexed to Rule-12 (4) of the SCs and STs (POA) Rules,1995
- 25%, 50%, 75% at the first phase as per Rule and full amount of compensation wherever applicable at the first phase.
- The rest amount to be paid to the victims after conviction of the accused persons by the trial court.
- As per the (Amendment) Rules, 2011, 150 % increase in compensation/ monetary relief has been effected for the victims of atrocities with effect from 23.12.2011.